English grammar

English grammar
@p46 UNIT 23. I will and I'm going to A. Future actions Study the difference between will and going to: Sue is talking to Helen: SUE: Let's have a party HELLEN: That's a great idea. We'll invite lots of people. will ('ll): We use will when we decide to do something at the time of speaking. The speaker has not decided before. The party is a new idea. Later that day, Helen meets Dave: HELLEN: Sue and I have decided to have a party. We're going to invite lots of people. going to
UNIT 21. Will/shall (1) A. We use I'll (= I will) when we decide to do something at the time of speaking: * Oh, I've left the door open. I'll go and shut it. * 'What would you like to drink?' 'I'll have an orange juice, please.' * 'Did you phone Ruth?' 'Oh no, I forgot. I'll phone her now.' You cannot use the present simple (I do/I go etc.) in these sentences: * I'll go and shut the door. (not 'I go and shut') We often use I think I'll ... and I don't think I'll ...: * I feel a b
20. (I'm) going to (do) A. 'I am going to do something' = I have already decided to do it, I intend to do it: * A: There's a film on television tonight. Are you going to watch it? B: No, I'm tired. I'm going to have an early night. * A: I hear Ruth has won some money. What is she going to do with it? B: She's going to buy a new car. * A: Have you made the coffee yet? B: I'm just going to make it. (just = right at this moment) * This food looks horrible. I'm not going to eat it.
@p38 UNIT 19. Present tenses (I am doing/I do) for the future A. Present continuous J am doing) with a future meaning Study this example situation: This is Tom's diary for next week. He is playing tennis on Monday afternoon. He is going to the dentist on Tuesday morning. He is having dinner with Ann on Friday. In all these examples, Tom has already decided and arranged to do these things. Use the present continuous to say what you have already arranged to do. Do not use the pre
@p36 UNIT 18. Used to (do) A. Study this example situation: Dennis stopped smoking two years ago. He doesn't smoke any more. But he used to smoke. He used to smoke 40 cigarettes a day. 'He used to smoke' = he smoked regularly for some time in the past, but he doesn't smoke now. He was a smoker, but now he isn't B. 'Something used to happen' = something happened regularly in the past but no longer happens: * I used to play tennis a lot but I don't play very often now. * Diane us
17. Have and have got A. Have and have got (= possess, own etc.) We often use have got rather than have alone. So you can say: * We've got a new car. or We have a new car. * Ann has got two sisters. or Ann has two sisters. We use have got or have for illnesses, pains etc.: * I've got a headache. or I have a headache. In questions and negative sentences there are three possible forms: Have you got any money? I haven't got any money. Do you have any money? I don't have any mone
16. Past perfect continuous (I had been doing) A. Study this example situation: Yesterday morning I got up and looked out of the window. The sun was shining but the ground was very wet. It had been raining. It was not raining when I looked out of the window; the sun was shining. But it had been raining before. That's why the ground was wet. Had been ~ing is the past perfect continuous: I/we/you/they had(= I'd etc.) been doing/working/playing etc. he/she/it had (= he'd etc.) been do
15. Past perfect (I had done) A. Study this example situation: Sarah went to a party last week. Paul went to the party too but they didn't see each other. Paul went home at 10.30 and Sarah arrived at 11 o'clock. So: When Sarah arrived at the party, Paul wasn't there. He had gone home. Had gone is the past perfect (simple): I/we/they/you or he/she/it had (= I'd etc./he'd etc.) gone/seen/finished etc. The past perfect simple is had + past participle (gone/seen/finished etc.). For a lis
@p26 UNIT 13. Present perfect and past (1) (I have done and I did) A. Study this example situation: Tom is looking for his key. He can't find it. He has lost his key. (present perfect) This means that he doesn't have his key now. Ten minutes later: Now Tom has found his key. He has it now. Has he lost his key? (present perfect) No, he hasn't. He has found it. Did he lose his key? (past simple) Yes, he did. He lost his key (past simple) but now he has found it. (present
UNIT12. When ...? and How long ...? For and since A. Compare When ...? (+ past simple) and How long ...? (+ present perfect): A: When did it start raining? B: It started raining an hour ago/at 1 o'clock. A: How long has it been raining? B: It's been raining for an hour/since 1 o'clock. A: When did Joe and Carol first meet? B: They first met a long time ago/when they were at school. A: How long have Joe and Carol known each other? B: They've known each other for a long time./sin
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Kimki Ingliz tili gramatikasini bilsa shu guruga qo'shilib o'zi yaxshi bilgan mavzusini kiritsin yoki qisqaroq matn.